To address this challenge, we synthesized magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles that can image, localize, and mechanically load targeted proteins with high spatiotemporal resolution. We demonstrate their utility by investigating the cell-surface activation of two mechanoreceptors: Notch and E-cadherin. By measuring cellular responses to a spectrum of spatial, chemical, temporal, and mechanical inputs at the single-molecule and single-cell levels, we reveal how spatial segregation and mechanical force cooperate to direct receptor activation dynamics. This generalizable technique can be used to control and understand diverse mechanosensitive processes in cell signaling.
We found that the variation of the stimulation frequency and amplitude of hair bundles creates distinct mechanical responsive features along the tonotopic axis, where the kinetics of the hair bundle recovery motion exhibits unique frequency-dependent characteristics.